Circular Economy 2030 roadmap:
Human activities, particularly industrial activities and the rapid expansion of human settlements, have created an unsustainable accumulation of pollution as well as an unsustainable depletion of natural resources. The outcome of unsustainable pollution and resource depletion have created the global crisis we have come to know as Climate Change.
CSTI is not focused on debating the scientific research on climate change, Instead, we are focused on facilitating the transition from unsustainable industrial activities and development to biologically healthy and sustainable industrial activities and development.
CLIMATE CHANGE OVERVIEW:
Confused by all the recent talk about the October 2018 IPCC report and 1.5C warning?
Listen to explanations from CSTI Managing Trustee, Prof Shem Wandiga, FRSC, EBS along with John Kioli, Chairman, Kenya Climate Change Working Group and James Oduor, CEO, National Drought Management Authority
CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND THE CSTI SHARED MISSION 2030 ROADMAP:
CSTI is a registered Trust under the Kenya National Academy of Sciences housed at the UofN Institute for Climate Change and Adaptation. Staff capacity is the same as ICCA because we share office space and resources and we can also tap into the KNAS talent pool.
CSTI's Climate Action focus is market driven, specific to accelerating the transition towards Circular Bio-Economy manufacturing practices in Kenya.
After two years of due diligence, the consensus is that there are MSMEs eager to embrace the Circular Bio-Economy model and there is enough local scientific expertise. What is lacking are bankable and replicable social enterprise business models that MSMEs can adapt to their execution strategy.
Within Circular Bio-Economy, the ReSOLVE framework guides the way in which business models operate (see the McKinsey / Ellen MacArthur report in the link). Zerowaste Scotland has implemented the model with various types of brand certification offerings. Revolve from Zerowaste Scotland is a model we can try to emulate.
Our roadmap provides a high level view of the Circular Bio-Economy concept as it pertains to sub-sectors that can be readily developed in Kenya.
Links to the report
Guidance for counties
Guidance for SMEs
CLIMATE CHANGE IN NON-SCIENTIFIC TERMS:
The scientific language can be frustrating to comprehend. Dire warnings fill us with panic and leave us wondering what we can do to solve such a complex global crisis. The good news is that problems created by humans can just as easily be solved by humans. Listen to Trustee Board Member Cecilia Wandiga [Kenya] in a social media interview chat with Hannellie Sensemaker WorldPainter Venucia (Grace) [South Africa]. The discussion is focused on shifting our perspective on Climate Change and Adaptation from being terrified about problems to being joyful that we have enough knowledge, technology and opportunities to better ways of manufacturing products and building human settlements. As you think about how to discuss Climate Change with your friends and family, listen to simple ways in which we can Explore the Reactions in Life and Industry...
CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION & BUILDING THE CIRCULAR BIO-ECONOMY KNOWLEDGE TREE:
The above diagram has many pathways and an overwhelming number of concepts. It is one thing to see everything nicely laid out on a roadmap diagram and quite another to remember what to do when faced with the implementation challenge called daily life. Rather than trying to explain the concepts, we thought it would be easier to let you see how they can be applied to address challenges of growth economies.
The first video showcases case studies of manufacturing activities that have begun. The second video focuses more on planning and metrics.
It is important to use both approaches. To paraphrase Peter Drucker, you cannot fix what you don't measure. Yes, there are things like love and contentment for which quantitative measures will always fall far short of the emotion. However, if we say we have too much of bad Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, exactly how much is too bad and how much do we have to cut back before things are ok? Are the emissions from cars, from factories, from landfills and waste, from all? When we say we are using natural resources faster than they can be replenished, which ones, how fast are we using them and how fast can they be replenished? There are no universal answers. Each country and each location has to measure these conditions against global norms. We have started to established emission standards in different countries but we have not started to create natural resource consumption standards across different countries.
What actionable Circular Bio-Economy ideas and measures can you implement after watching the videos? In what ways can you contribute towards the attainment of the goals set forth in Kenya's Green Economy Strategy and Implementation Plan 2016-2030? How will you ensure your green economy activities support Kenya's Blue Economy Strategy and improve collaboration on keeping global waters pollution free?
CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND FOOD SECURITY:
Now that you are feeling more relaxed, we can take another look at scientific information. This time we seek to understand the changes we need to make in order to improve food security and nutrition while simultaneously facing increasing flooding and drought. We need land to grow food but population growth competes with land available for farming. Kenya needs to increase industrial manufacturing in order to increase economic growth but this also increases pollution that makes it difficult to grow nutritious high yield crops. A lot of the food we do grow goes to waste before it reaches the consumer, or, does not get to the consumers that need the food the most.
Trustee Board Member Evans Kituyi participates in a KTN News Transform Kenya panel discussion focused on improving food production and food distribution. Specifically, how do we eliminate hunger for 840 million people around the world who go hungry on a daily basis?
CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND CIRCULAR BIO-ECONOMY:
We can no longer think of agricultural production or industrial production as a straightforward line of sequential steps needed to get raw materials to a production site and then to a consumer. Instead, we must think about the interconnections (connected circles) that enable us to re-use materials, reduce waste, reduce toxins, reduce pollution, and, recycle nutrients so that ecological systems can recover as quickly as we generate mass industrial production.
For the Circular Bio-Economy approach to succeed, we need to pay more attention to attaching financial value to all the steps needed to improve the health of our systems. Right now, the final price of products does not reflect the price needed to clean water or clean pollution. We cannot make the price of products to absorb all the costs but we can create new jobs and new services in which people get paid for improving the health of our industrial systems. In the same way we created the current global trading system, we can expand the trading system to include the value of healthy products made from production waste (e.g. metal scraps, agricultural residue, discarded batteries). We can also create trading systems that pay for the innovation of materials that are rapidly renewable (energy from solar, wind and biomass, textiles from fungi, speciality minerals from urban landfill waste).
Although we have to act quickly (drastic reduction in emissions and pollution by 2030), the good news is we don't have to act alone. Here are some initiatives that have begun on food security:
CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND ECOLOGICAL REGENERATION:
We know trees clean the air of pollution and emissions, we also know trees improve rainfall, reduce soil erosion, and, areas with a lot of trees have healthier soils because the grass and groundcover does not get burned as quickly from the sun's rays. We also know trees on the edges of lakes and rivers provide shade the keeps the water temperature cooler and cooler water is better for fish and other aquatic life to grow. In our human settlements, we look for trees to park our cars under or sit under on hot days because the shade is cooler and the breeze is pleasant.
In the past we have thought of deserts as places full of sand and a lot of camels. However, if we redefine desert to include the absence of trees then our cities are deserts made of concrete and cement instead of sand. We have enough ecological knowledge to reverse the deserts made of sand. Now we need to develop new jobs that improve our ability to reverse the deserts made of concrete and cement.
CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND NEW MANUFACTURING MODELS:
The way in which we make things has to fundamentally change. We cannot throw away the parts of a fruit we do not use for eating, we must think about how to create financial value from the parts we do not eat. We cannot let sawdust pile from furniture making up and throw it into a lake or river or landfill, we must think about ways to use the sawdust to make new products. When we finish using a car or truck, we cannot just let it sit in a landfill waiting hundreds of years for it to rot. This is space that we could be using to grow food. Hence, we must think about how to disassemble the car and re-use all the parts with the same high quality as the original pieces. Instead of designing products so they sit in garbage piles after we throw them away when we are finished using them, we need to design products so that the replenish soil nutrients and clean up lakes and rivers when we throw them away.
Government cannot solve these problems. Government is a regulator, not a manufacturer or a consumer or an educator. Manufacturers, consumers and educational institutions must work together to solve these problems while making sure the solutions comply with government safety standards and economic growth projections. You can view the details on the 9 priority areas for action via this link.
Here are examples of how the private sector is taking the lead on developing new economic models that place a financial value on natural infrastructure:
CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION -
HIGH AMBITION COALITION ON CHEMICALS AND WASTE
Safer chemicals are the key to sustainable development across all industry sectors with significant contribution to make on SDG 7, 12 and 13 as well as major contributions to SDG 2, 3 and 6.
CIRCULAR BIO-ECONOMY INPUTS: Humans are organic organisms with the need to grow both physically and aspirationally. By extension, economic activity, especially in developing countries, is driven by the need to grow both physically and aspirationally. However, historical production methods have created a global health and environmental crisis. Instead of replicating the historical approach, African countries can become global beacons of innovation and creativity. African countries can develop new technologies and processes for the use of safer chemicals, the development of biodegradable and renewable synthetic materials that perform the same or better than organic materials, as well as the elimination of toxins and persistent organic pollutants.
Watch "Circular economy key to unlocking Africa's potential - Expert" (2016) - African countries cannot achieve the required economic growth rates using traditional linear manufacturing models because linear models are too inefficient. Given a growing population, Climate Change and increasing natural resource scarcity on the Continent, Africa has to leap frog into advanced Circular production methods in order to become economically competitive on the global stage
Watch "Marco Mensink talks "circular economy" at the Cefic Global Chemical Industry European Convention" (2016) - presents an overview of why we must transition towards activities such as carbon capture and use, not just carbon capture and storage
Watch "Chemistry & life sciences: building blocks for the circular economy" (2018) - breaking down polymers into monomer base chemicals, chemical leasing, and, the use of biotechnology in the value addition of agricultural waste and insect derived enzymes are some of the Circular Bio-Economy transition strategies that are ready for industry level implementation.
CIRCULAR BIO-ECONOMY ENABLERS:
In addition to setting sustainability goals, industry partnerships need to be created in order to ensure safer chemicals are used across entire supply chains and value chains. This is the goal of the High Ambition Coalition for Chemicals and Waste https://www.unenvironment.org/news-and-stories/press-release/coalition-96-partners-steps-ambition-climate-action
Launched in 2012 by seven partners, CCAC is the only global forum dedicated to reducing short-lived climate pollutants at the source. SLCPs are substances that remain in the atmosphere for a relatively short time, from a few days to 15 years, but are powerful drivers of near-term atmospheric warming.
Scientific research shows that proven measures to reduce SLCPs - in particular, methane, black carbon (soot) and some HFCs - could, if widely implemented, reduce global warming by 0.6°C by 2050, save more than 2 million lives, and achieve multiple development benefits.
If you have ever wondered how do these coalitions get formed, where are things discussed? You can get a glimpse through our Facebook live recording of the summary highlights of the High Ambition Coalition for Chemicals and Waste at the 4th UN Environment Assembly (UNEA) http://web.unep.org/environmentassembly/fourth-session-un-environment-assembly
Chemicals monitoring is not an activity everyone can be involved in. However, safe use, storage and distribution of chemicals is something everyone can do until we have completely replaced hazardous chemicals with biologically safe chemicals.
Within the chemicals industry, the framework for implementation of Environmental Health and Safety in alignment with the Sustainable Development Goals is called Responsible Care®.
Started in Canada in 1995 with product stewardship introduced in 2006, Responsible Care® is a voluntary compliance framework in which participating companies agree to go beyond the minimum standards established by legal compliance requirements.
Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
CIRCULAR BIO-ECONOMY IMPACT REALMS:
The 12 guiding principles of the Responsible Care® framework are [principles in bold text represent CSTI scope of activities]:
To lead in ethical ways that increasingly benefit society, the economy and the environment.
To design and develop products that can be manufactured, transported, used and disposed of or recycled safely.
To work with customers, carriers, suppliers, distributors and contractors to foster the safe and secure use, transport and disposal of chemicals and provide hazard and risk information that can be accessed and applied in their operations and products.
To design and operate facilities in a safe, secure and environmentally sound manner.
To instill a culture throughout all levels of the organizations to continually identify, reduce and manage process safety risks.
To promote pollution prevention, minimization of waste and conservation of energy and other critical resources at every stage of the life cycle of products.
To cooperate with governments at all levels and organizations in the development of effective and efficient safety, health, environmental and security laws, regulations and standards.
To support education and research on the health, safety, environmental effects and security of products and processes.
To communicate product, service and process risks to stakeholders and listen to and consider their perspectives.
To make continual progress toward a goal of no accidents, injuries or harm to human health and the environment from products and operations and openly report health, safety, environmental and security performance.
To seek continual improvement in the integrated Responsible Care Management System® to address environmental, health, safety and security performance.
To promote Responsible Care by encouraging and assisting other companies to adhere to these Guiding Principles.
FROM GLOBAL AGREEMENTS TO LOCAL LEGISLATION:
In 2018, the Kenya Association of Manufacturers begun implementation of the Responsible Care® framework.
Some of the challenges that Kenya has experienced in chemical management include the lack of specific policy for chemicals management, low awareness and information flow, an inadequate system for information exchange on chemicals hazard, low inventory on chemicals and risk along the supply chain of chemicals management, according to a 2016 Baseline Study on Chemicals Management in Kenya. Through the Global Environment Facility (GEF) programme and with Kenya Association of Manufacturers as an implementing partner, the Ministry of Environment and Forestry has made strides to develop sound policies on chemical management and reduction of unintentionally produced organic pollutants
Currently, there exists regulations such as the Occupational Safety and Health Act, 2007 that promote the health and safety at the workplace. But going a step further, we need to initiate public awareness forums on chemical waste management initiatives in both county and national level.The development of a sound National Chemical Policy and the implementation of a chemicals management roadmap will also drive sustainable chemical practices.
The Draft Toxic and Hazardous Industrial Chemicals and Materials Regulations, 2018 is a step in the right direction.On the other hand, self-regulation also plays a huge role in chemical waste management.
To pursue this, KAM partnered with the International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) to promote Responsible Care® in the country. We are proud to be the first African Country to undertake the Responsible Care initiative in the East African Region.
Responsible Care, one of the largest industry-driven waste management initiative, is a voluntary commitment by the global chemical industry to drive continuous improvement and achieve excellence in environmental, health and safety and security performance
You can download Kenya's Draft Toxic and Hazardous Industrial Chemicals and Materials Regulations (2018) via this link
Scope: These regulations shall apply to production, manufacture, exportation,
importation, transportation, distribution, storage, handling and disposal of
toxic and hazardous industrial chemicals and materials.
(1) To ensure protection of human health and environment from adverse
effects of toxic and hazardous industrial chemicals and materials.
(2) To reduce risks posed by chemicals
(3) To further domesticate relevant provisions of international treaties and to provide for sustainable management of chemicals.
Registration: No person or firm shall manufacture, import or export toxic and hazardous industrial chemicals or materials or both as specified under 5 (2) unless the chemical and / or material is registered under the Second Schedule.
Labeling and Packaging: 19 (1) No person shall store, distribute, or sell any toxic and hazardous
industrial chemicals or materials without an appropriate label attached to the
Advertising: 22. Any person who advertises any toxic and hazardous industrial chemicals or materials shall ensure that the advertisement contains information warning that the toxic or hazardous industrial chemicals or materials may be harmful to human health and the environment.
Advertisement Limitation: 23. No person shall use words, packages or labels stating, implying or inferring that a chemical or material is approved, accepted or recommended by the government or by any department or agency thereof in any advertisement in respect to a chemical or material.
Manufacture, Imports and Exports: 24. (1) No person shall manufacture, import and export toxic and hazardous
industrial chemicals or material unless the person has a license issued by the
Environment Impact Assessment: Environment Audit and Chemical Safety Audits: 31. (1) No person shall manufacture toxic or hazardous chemicals and materials without an Environmental Impact Assessment license as per the EIA/EA Regulations.
Distribution, Storage, Transportation and Handling:
Distribution: 33. (1) No person who sources / purchases, stores and then places on market toxic and hazardous industrial chemicals or material for another entity or under one’s own brand without changing its chemical composition in any way, shall distribute it unless the person has a license issued by the Authority.
Storage: 34. (1) No person shall store any hazardous and toxic chemicals or materials unless the storage facility is licensed by the Authority.
Transportation: 35. (1) No person shall transport toxic or hazardous industrial chemicals or material unless they apply and obtain a valid permit from the Authority in the form prescribed in the Eighth schedule to these Regulations.
Handling: 39 (1) A manufacturer, importer, exporter, a storage facility, operator, user or any person handling toxic and hazardous industrial chemicals and / or materials shall institute safe handling procedures to prevent risks to human health and environment.
Incidents reporting and management: 40. (1) In the event of a chemical or material incident, the owner or operator of the plant, storage facility, motor vehicle or vessel shall report the incident to the relevant emergency response authorities.
Disposal of chemical and material wastes:
Disposal of chemical and material wastes: 42. (1) Any person in possession of obsolete, expired, surplus or any other toxic and hazardous industrial chemical or material declared by any law to be disposed shall notify the Authority on the type, quantity, physical and chemical status and any other information that may be required by the
Monitoring and assessment of impacts: 43. (1) The Authority in consultation with the relevant Lead Agencies shall monitor and assess the hazards, exposure, risks and impacts throughout the life cycle of toxic and hazardous industrial chemicals and materials and their residues to human health and the environment.
Pollutant Release and Transfer Register: 44. (1) The Authority shall establish and maintain a Pollutant Release and Transfer Register for all facilities handling toxic and hazardous industrial chemical and materials.
Mining impacts: 45. (1) The Authority and the relevant lead agencies shall ensure the use, emissions, releases and discharges of toxic and hazardous industrial chemicals into the environment are minimized and eliminated in mining and other
Dual-Use Chemicals and Chemical Precursors: 49. The Authority shall in consultation with the relevant lead agencies monitor the hazards and risks of toxic and hazardous dual-use chemicals and materials and their chemicals precursors on human health and environment in accordance with the provisions in this regulation or under any other relevant law.
Records and reports:
50. (1) The exporter, importer, manufacturer or supplier shall keep a record of all toxic and hazardous industrial chemicals or materials handled indicating the quantities received or manufactured, balances in stock, and information described under the First Schedule and shall be availed to the Authority on demand.
52. The Authority shall report to the Conference of Parties on the measures it has taken to implement the provisions of agreements or conventions on the
management of toxic and hazardous industrial chemicals in fulfillment of its
obligations. The reporting format shall be in accordance with the requirements
of the applicable chemicals or material related Convention.
Transitional Clause: 54. (1) Any producer, manufacturer, importer, exporter transporter, distributor, storage, handler or user of toxic and hazardous industrial chemicals or materials covered under these regulations shall within six months of the commencement of these regulations comply with the provisions of these regulations.
CIRCULAR BIO-ECONOMY OUTCOMES: The Good News
All these changes are opportunities to create service jobs related to the chemical industry.
As the global voice of the chemical industry, International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) is committed to helping the world overcome its most pressing sustainability challenges.
The Global Chemical Industry: Catalyzing Growth and Addressing Our World’s Sustainability Challenges, confirms that the chemical industry is an integral part of the global economic landscape – permeating through nearly every good-producing sector. Given today’s ever-growing population and limited resources, the chemical industry’s crucial role in most sectors of regional economies around the world has led to innovative, life-enhancing products and technologies that not only support the global economy, but also help people live longer, healthier, more sustainable lives.
The industry’s longstanding presence worldwide has turned the tide of human history. Many of the products and processes made possible by chemistry, have had substantial, positive impacts on global development, including progress towards the United Nation’s 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Our industry is helping to provide clean drinking water and deliver a safe, adequate food supply. We support the pursuit of a more circular economy, whereby resources and materials are continuously cycled to eliminate waste while creating value for all. We are also helping to improve energy efficiency in today’s modern transportation vehicles and buildings to contribute to a less carbon-dependent society. By using the innovations of chemistry, new renewable energy sources and technologies can become more efficient, affordable, and scalable.
Circular Bio-Economy Growth Requires Creativity:
There is A LOT of work ahead. Without structured plans for fun and creativity, solving challenges feels burdensome and exhausting.
The UNESCO Creative Cities Network (UCCN) was created in 2004 to promote cooperation with and among cities that have identified creativity as a strategic factor for sustainable urban development.
By joining the Network, cities commit to sharing their best practices and developing partnerships involving the public and private sectors as well as civil society in order to:
strengthen the creation, production, distribution and dissemination of cultural activities, goods and services;
develop hubs of creativity and innovation and broaden opportunities for creators and professionals in the cultural sector;
improve access to and participation in cultural life, in particular for marginalized or vulnerable groups and individuals;
fully integrate culture and creativity into sustainable development plans.
The Network covers seven creative fields: Crafts and Folk Arts, Media Arts, Film, Design, Gastronomy, Literature and Music.
CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND CIRCULAR BIO-ECONOMY PATHWAYS
The start dates on the 2030 roadmap represent the dates on which roll-outs begin, i.e. there is enough data from different pilots to scale up bankable business models at a national level. The implementation challenge at the start dates is the availability of an organization that can nurture the businesses from nascent stage to industry maturity. Example: petrol stations are an established business model that doesn't need incubation or guidance. We need to elevate circular bio-economy business model to the level where they don't need incubation after the start dates.
Each business activity listed on the 2030 roadmap is a circular bio-economy sub-sector, i.e. organic soaps is a subsector that is different from fungi textiles (even though both use food waste and agri-waste as raw material inputs).
The logic of the 2030 roadmap was to start with industry sectors for which there are already standard business models. Example: soap manufacturing is not new. Textile manufacturing is not new. What is needed is the shift to the Circular Bio-Economy model. Once we get to the midpoint on the roadmap (Eco-Village pilots onward) we start pushing the sub-sectors that are emerging globally within Circular Bio-Economy, i.e. right now in 2018 only a few industry leaders are pursing these models and by 2026 we should have a few more insights that enable us to avoid the steep initial learning curves.
Impact investors reward companies that have globally scalable models, the best empirical evidence and a highly capable business execution team.
Our goal is to develop frameworks that other universities and TVETs can use to ensure Kenyan manufacturers are well positioned to attract investors focused on Circular Bio-Economy impact.
Below is a visual depiction of the pathways manufacturers can purse to achieve Circular Bio-Economy by 2030. PDFs with active links that enable you to better understand the pathways can be downloaded for your use under the Creative Commons Non-Commercial Share Alike license.
Circular Bio-Economy Pathways.
Circular Bio-Economy Knowledge Tree
CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION DATA VISUALIZATION:
There is a saying: a picture tells a thousand words.
When we talk of low forest cover levels in Kenya, we are talking of a problem defined as areas in which forest cover is below 30% Trying to explain the situation with graphs is good for scientific analysis. However, for general communication, it is better to show picture comparisons.
Below is an active link to a map where you can explore different measures of forest cover and biodiversity in Kenya. Best of all, you can visually compare the data to other regions of the world. Snapshots of global comparisons taken when the map was added to this website have been included so that it is easy to understand why there are concerns about the current conditions.
In the same way we look for trees to give us shade on a hot day, we should look for trees to cool down temperatures. Ideally, we would see a lot of dark green patches around the world. Semi-ideal would be to see a lot of light green patches. When we see a lot of pink we know there is a threat of ecosystem collapse because biodiversity is low. When all we see is white there is a crisis because we now have a desert.
As we improve and expand our Circular Bio-Economy activities, the expectation is the map will start to show a lot more light green then progress to dark green. Benchmark images have been included so that, as you navigate the Kenya map, you have a visual comparison of the forest cover in other regions of the world.
We look forward to seeing you sharing your results on this global collaborative journey to save our planet by shifting to a Circular Bio-Economy by 2030!