© 2019 Centre for Science & Technology Innovations

We link scientific innovation to the benefit of every day people: climate adaptation, biochemistry, biotechnology

Kenya Sustainable Cities - Visualizing Healthy Industrial Effluents

September 6, 2018

Industrial production is a process of converting raw material inputs into value added outputs. The value and use of the outputs is defined by the human mindset. What we decide not to value or to use we call waste. It is our mindset that also defines quality standards. Those with a mindset that promotes health use scientific evidence to develop safety standards that ensure health can be abundant. Abundant health and safety is what we are calling #BiologicalSafety and #BiologicalLuxury. 

 

Public awareness of water quality standards can improve #BiologicalSafety and #BiologicalLuxury. 

 

Water and Wastewater Treatment in Africa – Current Practices and Challenges (2013)

 

http://www.ku.ac.ke/schools/engineering/images/stories/docs/research/waste_water_treatment.pdf 

 

The standards are available for free

 

WHO Drinking-water quality guidelines

 

http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/water-quality/guidelines/en/ 

 

When the avoidance of good health becomes pervasive, it is not only costly for human life (the ultimate price), it is costly for industry. 

 

Lead is one source of water contamination that we have quantified damages for. 

 

Human cost of lead exposure in Africa is shown in Table 3 of this study which estimates both IQ loss and losses in economic productivity (LEP). The total estimated IQ loss for Africa is 98.6 million points at an economic cost of $94,000 for each of the 98.6 million points or $9.3 trillion ($9,268,400,000,000). Eastern Africa has the highest estimated IQ loss in Africa at 36.0 million points with estimated LEP of $16,500 per point for a total estimated economic loss of $594 billion ($594,000,000,000). 

 

Economic Costs of Childhood Lead Exposure in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (2013)

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3764081/ 

 

Imagine how proud we are of Kenya's rise into middle income status and how much further along we would be without economic productivity losses due to lead poisoning. And lead is just one chemical. 

 

The Flint Michigan water crisis is a perfect example of what happens when quality standards are ignored. The Flint River is very contaminated. In addition to lead, there was a problem of chloride levels being so high that cars could not be manufactured using the water. 

 

How GM saved itself from Flint water crisis: Rusting engine blocks flagged big problem (2016)

 

http://www.autonews.com/article/20160131/OEM01/302019964/how-gm-saved-itself-from-flint-water-crisis 

 

Just two chemicals (lead and chloride), if not managed properly, can bring a local economy to a standstill. The problem did not happen overnight. The problem built up over years of neglect and mismanagement until it became a crisis. A crisis that could have been avoided by embracing a different mindset from the start. 

 

How the Flint River got so toxic (2016) 

 

https://www.theverge.com/2016/2/26/11117022/flint-michigan-water-crisis-lead-pollution-history 

 

There is no trade agreement or development aid mechanism that can fix this loss. The solution is to switch to a mindset that demands and maintains #BiologicalSafety and #BiologicalLuxury as the only living standard.

 

So that you don't think we write about science fiction in industry, here is Corbion's own promotion of the #BiologicalSafety and #BiologicalLuxury mindset. 

 

Watch "Corbion 2018 English The background of our lives" on YouTube

 

https://youtu.be/I4D3YuFJ9B0 

 

On the automotive innovation side, enzymes are heavily used in the manufacturing process. What if we could develop enzymes that clean auto engines while cleaning water at the same time? 

 

The naturally occurring chlorite dismutase enzyme shows potential. Will our mindsets embrace the shift towards biological safety or shall we keep using the existing methods that we know are harmful? 

 

Neutrons probe oxygen-generating enzyme for a greener approach to clean water (2017)

 

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/11/171113195004.htm 

 

Mechanism of chlorite degradation to chloride and dioxygen by the enzyme chlorite dismutase (2015)

 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003986115000934 

 

Chlorite dismutases – a heme enzyme family for use in bioremediation and generation of molecular oxygen (2014)

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4162996/#__ffn_sectitle 

 

Also on the innovation front, we can use lignin for biofuels as well as for carbon fibre. 

 

Research project to make lignin carbon fibre possible (2015)

 

http://www.innventia.com/en/About-us/News1/Research-project-to-make-lignin-carbon-fibre-possible/ 

 

 

We discover what we look for. If we do not look for #BiologicalSafety and #BiologicalLuxury then we will not discover either. Let us Explore the Reactions in Life and Industry by looking for safety first. 

 

You can support a shift towards biological safety in Kenya by investing in research and development at CSTI. Successful research takes time.  The sooner you invest, the earlier we can deliver results. 

 

Contact us for more details. 

 

Give us a call or send us a note:

 

+254 735 200 458 

 

info@csti.or.ke

 

 

 

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 CSTI - What inspires us:

 

We are a multidisciplinary team of researchers and practitioners who believe that the scientific and technological knowledge we develop is a legacy trust we create for the community.

Some people are artists, others give inspirational speeches.  We deliver understanding that can be adapted to solve ecological and industrial problems.  The eagerness with which this understanding is received and used is what inspires us to do our work.

We  must treat the earth well. It was not given to us by our parents, it is loaned to us by our children.

Mtunze ardhi vyema. Hamkupewa na wazazi, bali mlikopeshwa na wazawa wenu. (Swahili)

 csti milestones: 

 

Sept 16, 1998:   Micro-Science kits were developed for schools and are still in use.

 

1997 to 1999:  Micro-Science kits were developed for schools and are still in use.

 

2010:  Conclusion of our Sakai Community Resilience to Drought project in which over US $300,000 total funding was leveraged to develop a replicable model for community resilience to drought.  The model was adopted by Kenya government. (See IISD website for additional details)

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